The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder & Elbow Score used as a Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for the Youth and High School Aged Baseball Athlete.
Monti R, Fernandez-Fernandez A.
Background: The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder & Elbow Score (KJOC) provides questions for the overhead athlete that can aid with determining if someone is throwing with or without pain. However, this scale was initially created for the adult baseball athlete and has not been validated for younger male demographics.
Hypothesis/Purpose: To (1) determine if the scores on the KJOC are different between those throwing with and without pain in male youth and high school-aged baseball athletes, and (2) establish a prediction score for whether a young baseball athlete is throwing with symptoms.
Methods: The KJOC questionnaire was used to compare scores in male baseball players between the ages of 10 through 18. This questionnaire consists of 10 questions that each contain a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS). When all questions are added together the highest possible score is 100 points, with a higher score equating to a better outcome of throwing without symptoms. Retrospective data from 28 subjects with throwing arm pain were compared to 28 prospective subjects actively participating in baseball with no pain. A Mann Whitney-U test was used to compare the mean scores, and regression analysis was used to establish a threshold score between those throwing with and without pain.
Results: Significant differences were found between the groups (U = 698.5, p < .001) with capability to discriminate those throwing with pain versus those throwing without pain (Area Under Curve (AUC) .891). Results indicate this discriminating threshold score to be at 68.6 points, which signifies anyone scoring above this threshold would be throwing with no pain and a score below this number indicating throwing with pain.
Conclusion: The KJOC can differentiate between younger baseball athletes throwing with and without pain. The predictive threshold score can be used in a clinical setting to aid with determining if a youth or high school-aged athlete is suffering from pain while participating in overhead throwing, and to guide rehabilitation management.
Level of Evidence: Level III