The Concurrent Validity and Reliability of Single Leg Squat Among Physically Active Females with and without Dynamic Knee Valgus.
Jamaludin NI, Sahabuddin FNA, Rasudin NS, Shaharudin S.
Background: The single leg squat (SLS) motion imitates various maneuvers in sports. It is commonly used as a functional test for the lower limb. SLS with two-dimensional (2-D) video analysis is regularly performed in the clinical setting to assess dynamic knee valgus (DKV). However, 2-D video analysis may not be able to demonstrate the same level of accuracy as three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis.
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the within- and between-day reliability as well as the concurrent validity of 2-D and 3-D motion analysis of lower limb kinematics during 45° and 60° SLS among physically active females with and without DKV.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study
Methods: A total of 34 physically active females (17 individuals with excessive DKV and 17 without DKV) participated in the study. Their DKV was determined based on the cut-off values of knee frontal plane projection angle during drop landing. Their lower limb kinematics during SLS at 45° and 60° knee flexion were captured simultaneously by digital cameras (2-D motion capture) and infrared cameras (3-D motion capture). Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used as an indicator for within- and between-day reliability tests of both groups. Bland-Altman Plot and Pearson correlation were used to examine the validity of 2-D and 3-D motion capture methods in evaluating knee valgus angle.
Results: Two-dimensional knee FPPA and 3-D knee angle measured during 45° and 60° SLS in normal and excessive DKV groups showed moderate to excellent within-day and between-day reliability (ICC≥ 0.50). The current study showed that the 2-D knee frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) during 45° SLS were valid for the non-dominant leg in both groups. Additionally, the 2-D knee FPPA during 60° SLS were valid for non-dominant leg in excessive DKV group and dominant leg in normal group.
Conclusion: Two-dimensional knee FPPA during 45° and 60° SLS also showed high within-and between-day reliability for both groups. The validity of 2-D knee FPPA during SLS depends on the squat depth, stance leg, and presence of DKV.
Level of Evidence: 2B