Sex-related Anthropometrics in a Lower-Body Mobility Assessment Among Professional Soccer Athletes.
Hedt CA, Le JT, Heimdal T, et al.
Background: The functional movement screen (FMS™) and Y-balance test (YBT) are commonly used to evaluate mobility in athletes.
Purpose: The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the relationship between demographic and anthropometric factors such as sex, body composition, and skeletal dimension and scoring on YBT and FMS™ in male and female professional soccer athletes.
Study Design: Cross Sectional
Methods: During pre-season assessments, athletes from two professional soccer clubs were recruited and underwent body composition and skeletal dimension analysis via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans. Balance and mobility were assessed using the YBT and FMS™. A two-tailed t-test was used to compare YBT between sexes. Chi-square was used for sex comparisons of FMS™ scores. Correlation analysis was used to determine if body composition and/or skeletal dimensions correlated with YBT or FMS™ measures. Type-I error; α=0.05.
Results: 40 Participants were successfully recruited: (24 males: 27±5yr, 79±9kg; |16 females: 25±3yr, 63±4kg). YBT: Correlations were found between anterior reach and height (r=-0.36), total lean mass (LM)(r=-0.39), and trunk LM(r=-0.39) as well as between posterolateral reach and pelvic width (PW)(r=0.42), femur length (r=0.44), and tibia length (r=0.51)(all p<0.05). FMS™: The deep squat score was correlated with height(r=-0.40), PW(r=0.40), LM(r=-0.43), and trunk LM (r =-0.40)(p<0.05). Inline lunge scores were correlated with height(r=-0.63), PW(r=0.60), LM(r=-0.77), trunk LM(r=-0.73), and leg LM(r=0.70)(all p<0.05). Straight leg raise scores were correlated with PW (r=0.45, p<0.05). Females scored higher for the three lower body FMS™ measures where correlations were observed (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Lower body FMS™ scores differ between male and female professional soccer athletes and are related to anthropometric factors that may influence screening and outcomes for the FMS™ and YBT, respectively. Thus, these anatomical factors likely need to be taken into account when assessing baseline performance and risk of injury to improve screening efficacy.
Level of Evidence: Level 3b