Reliability and Differences Between Sexes in Landing Mechanics when Performing the Lateral Bound Test.
Waldhelm A, Allen S, Grand L, et al.
Background and Purpose: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are prevalent among the athletic population, imposing a heavy economic burden, and the risk of re-injury. Most current biomechanical screening tasks are performed in the sagittal plane, and there is a need for more screening tools that assess sports specific movements in the frontal plane. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of and examine differences between sexes in the performance of the Lateral Bound Test (LBT).
Materials/Methods: Each subject performed three trials of a LBT which included jumping laterally from one leg over a hurdle and landing on the opposite leg. Two cameras were placed six feet from the landing marker. Maximum dynamic knee valgus using the frontal plane projection angle and knee flexion angle at initial contact and maximal knee flexion were measured upon landing leg using 2D video analysis software. Additionally, video of 10 individuals’ trials were analyzed twice with one week between the analyses to obtain intra-rater reliability while 12 participants were retested one week later to determine test-retest reliability.
Results: Thirty healthy subjects, 16 males, 14 females participated. Intra-rater reliability was determined to be excellent for all variables (ICC>0.96). In contrast, the test-retest reliability had greater disparity. Test-retest reliability ranged from poor (ICC = 0.47) to excellent (ICC > 0.90). Significant differences existed between the sexes, including males being significantly taller, weighing more, and demonstrating greater bilateral dynamic knee valgus (p < 0.05). No significant differences existed between sexes for knee flexion angles.
Conclusion: The new LBT had excellent intra-rater reliability for assessing dynamic knee valgus and initial and maximum knee flexion angle when performing a functional movement in the frontal plane. Furthermore, males landed with more dynamic knee valgus than females which is contradictory to what has been observed with functional screening tools performed in the sagittal plane.
Level of Evidence: 3b (reliability study)