No Difference in Hip Muscle Volumes and Fatty Infiltration in Those With Hip-Related Pain Compared to Controls.
Retchford TH, Tucker KJ, Hart HF, et al.
Background: Little is known about muscle morphology in people with hip-related pain, without signs of femoro-acetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). Identifying changes in hip muscle volume, fatty infiltrate and establishing relationships between muscle volume and strength, may provide insight into potential early treatment strategies.
Purposes: To: (i) compare the volumes and fatty infiltrate of gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimis, tensor fascia latae and quadratus femoris between symptomatic and less-symptomatic sides of participants with hip-related pain; (ii) compare the volumes and fatty infiltrate of hip muscles between healthy controls and symptomatic participants; and (iii) explore relationships of hip muscle volumes to muscle strength and patient-reported outcome measures in people with hip-related pain.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study
Methods: Muscle volume and fatty infiltrate (from magnetic resonance imaging), hip muscle strength, patient-reported symptoms, function and quality of life (QOL) were determined for 16 participants with hip-related pain (no clinical signs of FAIS; 37±9 years) and 15 controls (31±9 years). Using One Way Analysis of Co-Variance tests, muscle volume and fatty infiltrate was compared between the symptomatic and less-symptomatic sides in participants with hip-related pain as well as between healthy controls and symptomatic participants. In addition, hip muscle volume was correlated with hip muscle strength, hip-reported symptoms, function and QOL.
Results: No differences in all the studied muscle volumes or fatty infiltrate were identified between the symptomatic and less-symptomatic hips of people with hip-related pain; or between people with and without hip-related pain. Greater GMED volume on the symptomatic side was associated with less symptoms and better function and QOL (ρ=0.522-0.617) for those with hip-related pain. Larger GMAX volume was associated with greater hip abduction and internal rotation strength, larger GMED volume was associated with greater hip extension strength, and larger QF volume was associated with greater hip abduction strength (rho=0.507-0.638).
Conclusion: People with hip-related pain and no clinical signs of FAIS have hip muscle volumes that are not significantly different than those of matched pain-free controls or their less-symptomatic hip. Larger GMED muscle volume was associated with fewer symptoms and greater strength.
Level of evidence: Level 3a