Kinematics, Kinetics and Muscle Activity Analysis during Single-leg Drop-jump Landing Followed by an Unanticipated Task: Focusing on Differences in Neurocognitive Function.
Shibata S, Takemura M, Miyakawa S.
Background: Lower neurocognitive function is a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the mechanism by which lower neurocognitive function increases the risk of ACL injury remains unclear.
Purpose: To clarify the effect of differences in neurocognitive function on landing mechanics during a single-leg drop-jump landing motion followed by an unanticipated task.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study
Methods: Fifteen collegiate female athletes were recruited (20.1 ± 1.3 years, 166.6 ± 7.3 cm, 60.6 ± 6.9 kg) and were divided into two groups (the high-performance (HP) group and the lower-performance (LP) group) using the median Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) score. Three-dimensional motion analysis was employed for the analysis during the experimental task of a single-leg drop-jump followed by an unanticipated landing task from a 30-cm high box. Joint angular changes of the trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee were calculated within the interval from initial contact (IC) to 40ms. Knee and hip moments were calculated as the maximum values within the interval from IC to 40ms. Surface electromyography data from key muscles were analyzed 50ms before and after IC. Independent t-tests were used to compare the effects of different neurocognitive function on the measurement items. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
Results: The SDMT score was significantly higher in HP group (HP: 77.9 ± 5.5; LP: 66.0 ± 3.4; p < 0.001). The LP group had a significantly greater trunk rotation angular change to the stance leg side (HP: 0.4 ± 0.8; LP: 1.2 ± 0.4; p = 0.020). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of joint moments, and muscle activities.
Conclusion: Differences in neurocognitive function by SDMT were found to be related to differences in motor strategies of the trunk in the horizontal plane. Although trunk motion in the sagittal and frontal planes during single-leg drop-jump landing increases the ACL injury risk by affecting knee joint motion, the effect of trunk motion in the horizontal plane remains unclear.
Level of Evidence: 3