Intra-rater Reliability of a Qualitative Landing Scale for the Single-Hop Test: A Pilot Study.
Measson MV, Ithurburn MP, Rambaud AJM.
Background: The test battery classically used for return-to-sport (RTS) decision-making after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) may not be sufficient, as it does not include a qualitative analysis of movement. Therefore, the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scale was adapted to a primary functional test in the typical RTS test battery: the single leg hop for distance (SHD).
Hypothesis/ Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the intra-rater reliability of the LESS scale adapted to the SHD (SHD-LESS scale) in healthy young athletes.
Study Design: Reliability analysis
Methods: Nineteen healthy individuals (14 men, 5 women; mean age: 22.4 years) participated in the study. Participants performed the SHD tasks on both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) using a standardized protocol in two sessions that were one week apart (single reviewer; 2-dimensional video). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) were used to measure the reproducibility of the scale in the dominant (dom) and non-dominant (nondom) limbs. Additionally, limb data (dom and nondom) were pooled and evaluated collectively with intra-class correlation coefficients. The Kappa coefficient was used to assess the reproducibility of each individual item of SHD-LESS scale.
Results: The intra-rater reliability was good (ICCdom = 0.77; ICCnondom = 0.87; ICCpooled = 0.87) for the overall SHD-LESS scale scores. Agreement of SHD-LESS individual items ranged from 62% to 100%. Dorsiflexion at initial contact (97% agreement; kappa value=0.79) and knee valgus after landing (88% agreement; kappa value=0.65) had excellent agreement and kappa values.
Conclusion: The newly-adapted SHD-LESS scale showed good intra-rater reliability overall. Further studies should evaluate the impact of using the SHD-LESS scale within the RTS test battery on outcomes in patients after ACLR.
Level of Evidence: 3