Does the 2D Frontal Plane Projection Angle Predict Frontal Plane Knee Moments during Stepping, Landing, and Change of Direction Tasks?
Straub RK, Powers CM.
Background: Although dynamic knee valgus can be visually identified using the 2D frontal plane projection angle (FPPA), the validity of the FPPA in terms of predicting frontal plane knee kinematics has been questioned. The biomechanical utility of the FPPA may lie in its ability to predict frontal plane knee moments.
Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to comprehensively evaluate the ability of the FPPA to predict the frontal plane knee kinetics (peak moment, average moment, and moment at peak knee flexion) across a wide range of tasks (stepping, landing, and change of direction).
Design: Crossover Study Design.
Methods: Three-dimensional lower-extremity kinetics and 2D video were obtained from 39 healthy athletes (15 males and 24 females) during execution of six tasks (step down, drop jump, lateral shuffle, deceleration, triple hop, side-step-cut). Linear regression analysis was performed to determine if the 2D FPPA at peak knee flexion predicted frontal plane knee moment variables during the deceleration phase of each task (peak moment, average moment, moment at peak knee flexion).
Results: The FPPA was found to significantly predict the peak frontal plane knee moment for two tasks (deceleration and side-step-cut, R2 = 12% to 25%), average frontal plane knee moment for five tasks (drop jump, shuffle, deceleration, triple hop, side-step-cut, R2 = 15% to 40%), and frontal plane knee moment at peak knee flexion for five tasks (drop jump, shuffle, deceleration, triple hop, side-step-cut, R2 = 16% to 45%).
Conclusion: An increased FPPA (medial knee collapse) predicted increased knee valgus moments (or decreased knee varus moments) during landing and change of direction tasks (but not stepping). However, the predictive ability of the FPPA was weak to moderate.